Tribune. Emmanuel Macron sees a resemblance between the current period and that of ” between-two-wars “, characterized by the rise of populism ” in a Europe divided by the fears, the nationalist reaction, the consequences of the economic crisis “. Which allows him to pose as the bastion of “progressive” against populism, in the view of the european elections.

For the French president, as for the majority of historians and economists, the major crises of capitalism of 1929 and of 2007 would be the cause of the “curse” of populism. In reality, there is another interpretation of the rise of populism. In fact, in the 1930s, several countries, including the United States and France, have experienced a sharp deterioration of their economic and social situation, without this being reflected by the arrival to power of political forces ” populist “. This is the case of the New Deal of Roosevelt in the United States (1933), often regarded as the first experience of social-democracy, and the popular Front in France (1936). These two political experiences have allowed it to respond to the crisis by advanced social and democratic importance.

Hitler came to power via the ballot box, in 1933, is often presented as a direct result of the great depression of the 1930s and its social and economic consequences. Four researchers have shown in December of 2017, in a study for the National Bureau of Economic Research that the electoral success of the nazi party were on their origin in the introduction of a severe austerity policy. In effect, the chancellor Heinrich Brüning, appointed in 1930 to combat the crisis, takes four emergency decrees, in the absence of any parliamentary debate, which reduce the salaries of civil servants, unemployment benefits, health coverage, pensions. In total, the public expenditure…


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