for many years, scientists fit technology CRISPR gene editing for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. Recently, the same researchers from the United States edited cells of the immune system of three cancer patients and found that the modified “fighters” did not cause any dangerous side effects.
Recall that physicians are not the first year trying to increase the defense ability of human immunity and help him thus to fight cancer, which often remains invisible for the protective systems of the body. But only recently researchers have made significant progress in this area. One way is to reprogram the “shock troops” of the immune system. We are talking about T-lymphocytes or T-cells which can attack cancer cells.
under such treatment, scientists isolated T cells from the patient’s blood and modify them in the laboratory. As a result, after returning to the bloodstream, they are able to chase the tumor cells in the patient’s body.
Such treatment prolongs life for people suffering from cancer, which cannot be fought in other ways . But this method has its drawbacks.
the Modified T cells can lead to a too active immune system that can also threaten a person’s life. In addition, not all modified cells survive or remain effective required time.
All this has forced scientists to look for new ways to modify T-cells. As the author explains the work of Carl June (Carl June) at the University of Pennsylvania, his research team decided to look at QUALIFYING.
Previously, the authors of the project “Conduct.Science” (nauka.vesti.ru) told in detail about this technology. We briefly recall that the CRISPR system consists of artificially created suggestive RNA and the Cas9 enzyme. This complex is loaded in a harmless AAV virus (AAV) and it is delivered to the cell nucleus. The RNA molecule contains a copy of the small fishing villagon the DNA fragment corresponding to the location where you want to make the cut. It is attached to a given site, after which a protein called Cas9 cuts the chain.
in Other words, CRISPR allows scientists to make accurate enough change in the genes of living cells to remove “bad” genes and to introduce “useful”. Successful trials of this technique in animals allowed to speak about the great prospects in the treatment of a number of diseases: cancer, muscular dystrophy and HIV.
In recent years, experts have begun to test this methodology on people. However, there is concern that NASA is not really a safe tool because of the risk of unintended mutations.
the Experts decided to dot the i’s and conducted the first U.S. test of this method on three cancer patients.
the Researchers collected T cells from the blood of three people at age 60 years with advanced cancer. The organisms of these patients did not respond to traditional treatments. One of them was a sarcoma, others multiple myeloma.
With the help of CRISPR researchers removed three of the gene in T cells, which increased their ability to seek out and destroy cancer cells.
for Example, scientists have removed the “checkpoint” protein PD-1 which cancer often captures and thus stops the attack of the immune system. The other “editing” led to the elimination of certain receptors from the surface of T-cells, which gave the opportunity to carry out the fourth edit. The specialists have introduced a new artificial T-cell receptor. The latter sends the cells of the immune system to a specific cancer antigen. After all the manipulations the modified cells were introduced in patients.
Scientists call the results of the intervention are impressive. Edited cells have taken root in the body all subjects (only used one dose).
Subsequent studies showed that the modified cells continue to destroy the cancer after a nine monthEV after the procedure. (Earlier work demonstrated that the modified “fighters” are effective only a few days, which is not enough to achieve the result.)
unfortunately, none of the patients did not respond adequately to therapy. But experts do not consider it a failure because the test was intended solely to assess safety of the method.
In this regard, the study, by contrast, can be called successful: the scientists did not observe any serious side effects.
Experts are already working on conducting more extensive research on humans, in which they will test the CRISPR with the aim of improving T-cell therapy CAR. The authors of the project “Conduct.Science” in detail wrote about this type of treatment.
as for the patients, one subsequently died, the other two are alive and undergoing chemotherapy. Adds June, two patients may be offered participation in the next test. But it will depend on the terms dictated by Management on sanitary inspection behind quality of foodstuff and medicines of the United States.
Scientific article on the results of a study published in the online edition of Science.