a Group of scientists from Children’s research Institute Murdoch in Melbourne for the first time reproduced and visualized the earliest stages of origin and development of immune cells in vitro.
a Study by Australian scientists has been made possible by combining several modern laboratory techniques.
In the first phase of the experiment, experts have applied the latest approaches in genetic engineering, and created a special culture of pluripotent human stem cells.
Recall that these “grandparents” of organs and tissues capable of developing into any cell in the body except cells of the placenta and other structures that feed the embryo.
Thanks to genetic engineering intervention, some of the cells in the culture began to emit a green glow when exposed to ultraviolet light.
In the culture of pluripotent stem cells well-marked RAG1-positive progenitor cells T-lymphocytes are highlighted in green. Image with fluorescent microscope.Illustration of Ali Motazedian et al./Nature Cell Biology.
This radiation, researchers reported that in cells there is a specific protein RAG1. Explain that the substance contained in the cells-the precursors of T-lymphocytes and indicates that they will ripen this unit immunity.
Recall that T cells are the main element of acquired immunity. They “remember” harmful substances and pathogens encountered by an organism, and then recognize and destroy them when re-ingested.
Having the opportunity to better distinguish the material glow-RAG1-positive progenitor cells, the team was able to isolate them for further study.
In the course of further observation of their development, scientists have discovered a curious phenomenon. It turned out that these progenitor cells give rise not only T-lymphocytes.
Of them that happenkzhe In immune cells, hematopoietic cells from bone marrow and many other cells needed in the future for the formation of the complex immune system of vertebrates, including humans.
Another important discovery was that T-lymphocytes carry out their “pedigree” is not the precursors of blood cells inhabiting the bone marrow, as previously thought.
the Experiment showed that the key participants acquired immunity come from a line of stem cells that form the primary organs of the embryo and later the inner lining of blood vessels.
by the Way, these data are in good agreement with the results of previous studies. They showed a similar origin of T lymphocytes in fish zebrafish and mice.
the Researchers also emphasize that the creation of such cell cultures in the laboratory and the possibility of its thorough examination is in itself a significant event.
the Developed cell system will be a platform for further detailed studies of the earliest cells of the acquired immunity of the person, the authors report in their scientific article, published in the prestigious publication Nature Cell Biology.
But why is it important to have the ability to grow our protective cages in artificial conditions? The answer is quite simple. In addition to meeting the research interest, this approach will help scientists to understand the origins of serious diseases that are associated with the incorrect cells of the immune system.
this includes, for example, children’s leukemia, and some autoimmune diseases.
“the results of the study will help to better understand the mechanisms of development of leukemia and type I diabetes. Though, probably, it will be years before we start to implement the knowledge into clinical practice,” says one of the leaders of the work of Professor Andrew Hall (Andrew Elefanty) in the press release of the Institute.
in Addition, obtaining immune cells in the laboratory will improve immunotherapy of cancer. Indeed, thanks to the opening opportunities source of essential immune cells will become cells from the patient.
we will Add that earlier the authors “Conduct.Science” (nauka.vesti.ru) told me about other unexpected discoveries related to the immune system. For example, we wrote about the second the human immune system, which prevents the search of the second half. In addition, earlier researchers found that the self-regulation of the immune system makes use of chaos theory.
we Also talked about the role of immune system in choosing a sexual partner, and… spirits.
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