The centuries-long war for the cure of malaria: legends, myths and spyware detective

When on June 4, hosted an international online conference on vaccines (conducted via its “hub” in London, was attended by the head of the Ministry of health ant), is not less than about COVID-19, and talked about malaria. She is already thousands of years old, but vaccine vaccines never came up. And if they come up with…

Speaking recently at the club “Valdai” the head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova drew attention to the important thing: if the vaccine appears, it is the intellectual property of the inventor-owner.

the Delicate question: who else and how to be able to take advantage of the opening? We saw how the Americans tried to intercept French and German studies for COVID-19 to be the first to instill in yourself.

At the hearing today that anti-malarial drug “Hydroxychloroquine”, were used against COVID-19. Again: to be vaccinated or from malaria or from COVID-19 is not yet possible, but you can try to recover. And that is what the long war is for malaria drugs, is a lesson to us today.

please Refer to our legendary colleagues, veterans of the plant Nikolai Nikolaevich Drozdov, Vitali. Nikitich Ignatenko, to the leading Russian Professor Evgeny Morozov Parasitology. But my co-author in the story about how with antimalarial drugs has a spyware detective, will head the news feeds of the Agency “Sputnik” in Latin America Ilana Brecker. We begin, however, with the legend.

“of Course, each of you has heard of malarial mosquitoes”. In its program “world of animals” Nikolai Drozdov told about the fact that “globally, more than 2000 kinds of mosquitoes, even the Latin names reflect the essence of the mosquito tribe. Name the two largest genera — Aedes and Anopheles — translated into the Russian language as “nasty” and “unnecessary.” They seem created by nature to annoy us.”

Plagued by mosquitoes even dinosauframes. This is a truly ancient tribe. Breed now. And several thousand years ago, the mosquitoes become carriers of malaria. Whom she only destroyed in the Old world!

Alexander the great — but who were among the possible victims before our era. In the last Millennium — Saint Augustine, last — Genghis Khan. Then the poets Dante, Byron, and, by the way, Christopher Columbus.

In the suburban forest we were not accidental. All about malarial mosquitoes knows someone in here with giving, a leading Russian Professor of Parasitology Evgeny Morozov.

“Now many speak about mortality from COVID-19, which is only just reached 300 thousand in the world, and from malaria die each year from 400 to 500 thousand people”, — said Evgeny Morozov, Professor of the Institute of medical Parasitology, tropical and vector-borne diseases name E. I. martynovskogo sechenovskiy University.

Contrary to stereotypes the mosquito dolgonogi a vector of malaria is not. And who is?

“to Distinguish the malaria mosquito from pmalering at the landing. On the vertical wall of the Anopheles mosquito sitting, sticking out his belly at 45 degrees, and nenalezeny keeps it parallel to the wall,” reports Nikolai Drozdov.

You and in our latitudes such seen. What if you nibble?

“the temperature Rise, enlarged liver and spleen. Fever, chills, successive. When a deadly form of malaria, unfortunately, ends rather quickly,” explained Evgeny Morozov.

And all this applies with some rubbish tiny?

– Much less. It’s the simplest, it can be seen only under the microscope. Now a fifth type of malaria from Southeast Asia came to us. A number of the favorite our tourists resorts falls under this category. India, and African countries, e.g. Kenya, says frost.

From Asia to Europe. And the inhabitants of the middle band it is useful to know about migrants from CentralAsia. It including the invisible to the wider public the efforts of epidemiologists at the beginning of the century managed to get to visit until April or may, not in summer, when malaria is there and even the North Russian mosquito is moved. Whether still will be, when would-be tourists, managed to go to the tropics before “curved back on itself” air travel, EN masse back “return” flights right now, in the summer. And one recent summer, the doctors remember good.

While we are on the world Cup, rejoiced goals of the Russian national team, already work has increased among Russian infectiologists. In the summer of the Old world to the New Columbus went to discover America and bring malaria already there. About what happened a detective story from South America.

the Picturesque colonial town of Colonia del Sacramento today belongs to the independent Uruguay. But in different years, it was claimed, and Spain, and Argentina, and Brazil, and its mother country Portugal.

It is in the water mosquitoes lay their larvae. New monsters are born.

“the Mosquito sting seems simple, but under high magnification it is a complex structure and consists of six parts, two tubes, drainage and nutrients, which are surrounded by two sharp lower mandibles and two scalpels with saw-like teeth” — says in one of his broadcasts Nikolai Drozdov.

– Recent “export flight” of Sao Paulo (Brazil), Buenos Aires (Argentina) Santiago (Chile), Havana (Cuba). If these people all this time not spent in the cities, and traveled inland, there’s a chance?

– of Course, in the jungles of South America quite of malaria. And not only malaria of parasitic diseases. There is enough of everything, — said Evgeny Morozov.

So, we have malaria, all imported?

– has Been imported.

the Doctor Sokolov — that’s who was saved from the local foci of malaria Russia. But in the years 1935-1936 the disease laid in bed throughout the Soviet Union, 6 million hoursthe person. The main focus of the then swamps around Sochi: there were mosquitoes and the pathogen. Drained swamps, planting eucalyptus trees, some of which remain still, but each student was given a jar then. The word is probably the most famous Express-journalist, former General Director ITAR-TASS Vitaly Ignatenko.

“a half-liter jar in which floated Gambusia, fish such as tadpoles. And that’s when we went to school, from school and saw some sort of puddle — and there were full — I had this Gambusia have to produce. And she ate all the larvae of malaria. We already to the tenth grade than were less of these mosquitoes. And then completely disappeared. And now nobody remembers,” — said Ignatenko.

Gambusia in Sochi, incidentally, bred and today, because of vaccination or not. So what is malaria, at least try to treat?

in South America grow an amazing tree. Even before Columbus, the Indians knew that if such a tree to find, to remove the bark and grind it into powder, it turns a febrifuge. It is this powder saved from death bitten by a mosquito wife of the Spanish Viceroy of Peru, count of Chinchón. Altered from “Chinchon” and turned “quinine”. And its exclusive exporter, became the monastic order of the Jesuits, who controlled buffer of land on the border of the South American possessions of Spain and Portugal.

Street in Colonia del Sacramento, “Street of sighs”. Obviously, sighed here, including the fact that the Jesuits have got the monopoly on the export of Cinchona bark.

the Current Pope Francis is a Jesuit. But was still surprised when he became the first Pope from Latin America. It — the resource, including quinine.

“continue with Quinine to treat severe cases, because it is still effective. And it just drug resistance does not develop. Just the quinine has a number of contraindications. It can not be used in pregnant women, it is quite Idovit,” said Evgeny Morozov.

But all that we know today. And from time to time quinine was considered indispensable, and its “trickle” was controlled by the Jesuits.

meanwhile, the Europeans prepared to conquer new lands. Going to Africa and India, Protestants and didn’t want to hear about the powder from the Jesuit Catholics.

the British and the Dutch begin whole spy operation. The British are not lucky — they stole seeds of the subspecies of the miracle tree. But in 1861 a man of Charles Ledger persuaded the Bolivian Indians to sell him the right seeds and sold them to the Dutch. They built huge plantations belonging to them then Java. Made millions and blew from the market to the South Americans. However, at the same time was born another myth.

“a Common idea that a gin and tonic profilaktirujut malaria, unfortunately, is no good,” said Evgeny Morozov. The Professor explains: the right amount of quinine is, maybe in a bucket of tonic. And Gina is so much better not to drink.

“just the tonic does contain quinine. It was even written on Schweppes some time ago. But there is a trace amount, they can neither profilaktirovanija, nor even to be treated,” said frost.

But history is not standing still. In 1940, Germany invaded Holland and confiscated the whole of the European reserves of quinine. But in 1942 the Japanese captured Java, where there were miracle trees. And then revealed himself, of course, the Americans.

during the Second world war in the United States specifically for the Hispanic audience in Latin America began to publish the magazine “EN Guardia”. As usual the Americans, even then the magazine was colored. In color they talked about their successes, not only in front but in the rear.

a Long explanation about all the secrets, but one of the most complete set of the journal is stored in Russia. Including the story of how the United States then began to experiment with growing in Latin America in those crops, the massive plantation whichx was in the occupied countries. It was, for example, rubber. But the experiments went on, and with quinine. However, even faster than they grew the trees, the chemists in America were able to synthesize a new substance. For a short time the Americans took over the market, which was formerly the Jesuits and the Dutch.

However, today pills the same “Hydroxychloroquine” (put simply, artificial quinine) is produced, for example, in the Stavropol territory. Another proof of the fact that any monopoly is short-lived. But now that the tropics are “export” flights that drugs still not right?

– They are only effective from the three-day malaria, but not from her mortal form. And they are completely ineffective against tropical malaria, from which people die, — said Evgeny Morozov.

– you Have malaria what is the incubation period?

– Have for falciparum malaria 15-17 days.

– So there’s a chance that sitting now in quarantine at COVID 14 days, these people may not be identified as carriers of malaria?

– most Likely, of course, will be because it is on the brink. Another thing to diagnose, it is necessary to remember it. A patient comes to a doctor with rising temperature and receives a diagnosis of SARS. Today, maybe COVID his check, but not for malaria.

May be, at least COVID-19 spur genetic study of malaria, because the more so, for centuries, hiding from each other their achievements and never together, mankind should not live.