Top 10: what have we learned about people in 2019

the human Body is an incredible machine. Our feet allow us to run marathons, but the brain to develop new therapies and technologies. Our body surprises and delights scientists since ancient times, but is still not fully understood. The researchers recognized that they should learn a lot about the human body. In only one study of the immune system experts spend years. Expiring in 2019, scientists have made many exciting discoveries. For example, they found an invisible network of immune cells and found that helps people to live to be 100 years or more. Tell about the ten most important discoveries of 2019.

Illustration MIT Micromechanics Group.

Speak up.

Perhaps, for good hearing people say tiny jelly-like “violin”, which is located in the ear. Thin tissue, known as epithelial membrane (tectorial membrane), 97% consists of water. It helps to transfer the sound waves from the ear to the particular receptors which then convert the vibration into an electrical signal. It was his brain subsequently perceives.

a Recent study conducted on mice, showed that this gelatinous tissue helps the snail – cavities in the inner ear where the receptors for the perception of sound is to separate high frequency from low.

Tiny capillaries.

Scientists have suggested that human bone can be filled with a network of microscopic tunnels. The latter may be vital for the transport of immune cells that are produced in the bone marrow, into the blood stream.

In 2019, the researchers found hundreds of these tiny blood vessels or capillaries in the bones of mice. It’s opening a lot of UDevilo specialists, but they did not hurry to rejoice, because humans and rodents still differ significantly.

Subsequently, one of the researchers studied their own pace using MRI and found that his bone has holes, which may indicate that these capillaries also exist in the human body.

the authors of the project “Conduct.Science” ( told in detail about this wonderful test that is able to rewrite the textbooks on anatomy.

Photo Global Look Press.

Stop drinking.

As experts have found, our brain carefully monitors his “boss” didn’t drink too much or not enough water. And that helps him a special “prediction engine” in the gut.

a Group of scientists came to this conclusion after implanted optical fibers and lenses into the brains of mice in an area near the hypothalamus. Last, we will remind, regulates blood pressure and important features such as the feeling of hunger and thirst.

the Study showed that in the intestine there are molecules, “analyzing” part enters the body of fluid and to predict how much drink is enough to saturate the body. This system sends the received information to the brain within one minute.

Photo Hind Abdo.

all of a Sudden a new body.

this year researchers have discovered a previously unknown organ. It is located right in the skin of mice and helps them to perceive and react to pain caused by mechanical damage. A new body dubbed the nociceptive (pain) glioneuronal complex. According to the authors of the open, it is highly likely that the same body is, and the people.

Experts believe that the discovery will help to develop more effective means Borby with pain, which spoils the quality of life of many people. Learn more about “finding” can be read in our material.

Photo by Rui Diogo, Natalia Siomava, Yorick Gitton.

a Tiny muscle like a lizard.

In the past year, scientists have discovered that inside the human embryos grow additional muscles of the hands and feet that resemble those found in lizards. However, they disappear before birth.

Researchers in the course of work studied three-dimensional image from a database of embryo images and found that approximately the seventh week of pregnancy the embryos have human hands and feet contain approximately 30 muscles. However, six weeks later, their remains only 20. Even before the baby is born these tissues either “merge” with other muscles, or disappear. While scientists do not yet understand the reasons for the emergence and subsequent disappearance of these muscles.

In the future, the specialists intend to repeat the study and examine a larger number of images to make sure that these muscles are available for all the fetuses.

Photo Global Look Press.

Blow out 100 candles.

Researchers have been trying to unravel the mystery of longevity, for this reason, they carefully study people who were lucky enough to celebrate the centennial birthday and subsequent birthdays. Recently, the same researchers found that the body of centenarians have a large number of specific immune cells. We are talking about cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which kill diseased cells. We spoke in detail about this discovery in our material.

of Course, experts can not say that longevity is determined only by these immune cells. But earlier researchers found that they attack tumor cells and protect mice from the virus.

Photo Global Look Press.

the efficiency of the brain.

Perhaps there is a reason why some people do well notice any detail and seem to know everything.

a Group of scientists from Germany studied the brain 324 people who had varying degrees of General knowledge or semantic memory. The experts asked the study participants questions that referred to different fields such as art, architecture and science.

Subsequent brain scans showed that the people who gave the most correct answers, had a more “sturdy” and short connections between neurons that, apparently, did the work of their brain more effective.

illustration of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Department of Pathology, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Gray cardinal of the immune system?

this year, experts have also discovered a previously unknown type of cell in the human body. They are called immune cells of X, what “Conduct.Science” also forgot to tell you. Most importantly, they can play an important role in the development of type I diabetes.

scientists assume that the human body is not so much of immune cells, but they can influence the development of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and others.

In General, function as “recruits” reminiscent of b-cells and T-cells. Recall that the acquired immunity of the person with their help fighting the enemies.

As scientists have found that X-like cells and b cells, produce antibodies, which activate T cells, and then attacking pathogens.

In the case of type I diabetes immune cells mistakenly destroy healthy beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Researchers have also revealed X-cells people with diabetes of the first type, but did not find them in healthy people.

In the future, scientists plan to conduct additional studies that will help to check again the possibility of a connection between a new type of immune cells and type I diabetes.

Photo Global Look Press.

Language is able to smell?

this year, scientists found in the cells of the human language that help to recognize the taste, functional olfactory receptors. They are in the nose and help to identify odors.

an Additional function, the researchers found after raised like human cells language in the laboratory. As a result, scientists got the first evidence that taste cells are functional olfactory receptors.

Experts suggest that these receptors may play an important role in the taste sensory system.

Further work will help to improve the understanding of how the olfactory system detects odors. By the way, this same discovery was included in the list of the most weird and wonderful research 2019.

Photo Global Look Press.

the Limit of human endurance.

Even the best athletes in the world show a definite fatigue limit. Another discovery concerns the identification of the limit.

Experts from Duke University in the US found that there is a metabolic limit – the maximum possible voltage level, which people can endure in the long term, increase calorie consumption by 2.5 times compared to the rest. Actually, this is the very limit of endurance, which cannot overcome even the marathon runner.

And one more interesting fact. Turns outis, the metabolic limit of endurance of a marathon runner is only slightly higher than the same indicator of pregnant women: the power consumption exceeds the normal 2.2 times (the values were measured in earlier studies). This suggests that the same physiological “limits” that keep athletes from soaring records, may also limit other aspects of life such as the growth of the fetus in the womb.

If you want one fell swoop to cover all the most important scientific news of the year, then we invite you to read our other reviews of the year. So, we have prepared a list of the 20 most impressive astronomical breakthroughs of the year and told about the 10 most important science for the people by the prestigious scientific publication Nature (from myself I will add that not know these people even a bit indecent).

Text: To.Science