I’m Sure with many it happens: at the right time the brain refuses to remember the word, date, event, or location of an object. But after some time (even when it is no longer relevant) the desired information POPs up in memory.
In the new work, scientists from Japan and Canada have explained why this is so.
Researchers have identified in mice a gene that affects memory in different ways at different times of day, and watched it work.
According to scientists, to study the processes associated with working memory, it is very difficult. The fact that in some cases people can’t remember certain data, because his brain is not well studied (for example, a can’t remember the name of the person submitted a minute ago). In other cases, volunteers cannot retrieve information has long been stored in the brain (say, the words of some songs).
So “biology of forgetfulness” is difficult to study due to the difference between “ignorance” and “disobedience of the brain”, explain the experts.
to avoid this restriction, in new work, scientists have developed a test that considers this is a key distinction.
the Tests were carried out on adult male and female mice.
In the learning phase, or training, mice explored the new object for several minutes.
Later, in the phase of response (call to remembrance), the researchers observed how long the rodents came in contact with objects that were studied earlier.
As expected, the mice spent less time touching the items that they remember. (These data were required for comparison with the performance of the next experiment.)
In the next phase, the researchers checked the “response” of rodents, re-placing them next to the same object at different times of the day.
In this part of the experiment the mice were divided into two groups. One was a control, and the second had previously been modified so that animals were blocked production of the protein BMAL1, which regulates many other genes.
Production of this protein typically ranges during the day: the lowest concentration is observed just before awakening, the highest before going to sleep.
Mice that were trained during the preceding usual awakening, and were tested immediately after the usual “lights-out” easily remembered the familiar object.
meanwhile, the rodents that were trained at the same time, but passed the test after 24 hours (i.e. in the period before usual awakening) is much worse than recognized previously studied the subject.
it is Noteworthy that from normal mice and mice without the protein BMAL1 in the first case the results were the same. And the second animals of the second group showed more forgetfulness.
the Researchers saw the same results when they tested how well the rodents are characterized by their brethren.
Turns out, at that time of day when mice are usually awake, and when the levels of BMAL1 protein is usually low and the animals are not able to recall what they definitely remembered earlier.
Scientists have long suspected that the body’s circadian rhythms, which are responsible for regulating cycles of sleep and wakefulness, affect learning and memory work. Now they could prove it.
According to the researchers, a key role in the process of recollection plays the production of a protein BMAL1 brain area called the hippocampus (which is in her was found the neurons, improving memory and learning).
in addition, the command associates the production of BMAL1 activation of dopamine receptors and other signaling molecules in the brain.
Perhaps the new data will help to develop mechanisms that help to speed up the process of memory retrieval of the stored information. These mechanisms, in turn, will help create a new strategy to help people suffering from memory disorders in neurodegenerative disorders (such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease).
However, it remains a mystery why the brain has required the ability to disrupt the processes of forming memories at a certain time days. Perhaps it is an evolutionary advantage, the role of which remains to be seen.
Scientific article on the results of this work are presented in the journal Nature Communications.
by the Way, before “Conduct.Science” (nauka.vesti.ru) reported that to improve memory and brain function help certain foods and exercise. However, there is a more original way.